Logogram: Its Types, Characteristics and Functions in The Society

Logogram: Its Types, Characteristics and Functions in The Society

A logo is an adopted symbol skillfully drawn, sometimes with letters used by business organizations and institutions as a means of identification or trademark. The logo of a particular company or institution is unique and originally used by that company. It is inscribed on the products, letterheads, and on all the property owned by the company.

Logogram: Its Types, Characteristics and Functions in The SocietyFunctions

1. It assists clients in differentiating the product of one company from the other. This serves as a tool in checking counterfeit or fake products.

2. It helps the manufacturers of the product in maintaining the quality of their products. This heightens the value of their products.

3. It gives information about the origin of the product so that customers who are dissatisfied with the specifications of the product can relay their queries with little or no difficulty.

4. It serves as a legal property of an association or institution. Logos serve as symbols of authority of a company.

5. It assists foreign investors and traders in quickly identifying the owners of a particular product so that they can do business transactions with them.


1. It must be simple in design to aid in easy identification and recognition by clients.

2. It should be able to give quick description of the activities of the company or association.

3. It has to be highly original and distinct from those already used by other companies.

4. It must be attractive in design, shape and colour (if any).

5. The shape must have symbolic or philosophical meanings that have a bearing with the values, ideologies and aspirations of the company.


There are basically four types. These are Text, Iconic, Graphical and Illustrative logos.

1. Text logo

This is the incorporation of the company or brand name into a uniquely styled font design. Sometimes, the initial letters of the company name or popular brand name is used in the designing of the logo. Text logos are also referred to as logotype/word mark or letter mark. Examples of text logo include PZ Cussons logo, FedEx, Dell, Sony, CNN, Nokia, Flickr, Nook etc.

2. Iconic logo

This logo involves the use of an abstracted symbol or sign that mostly reflect the activities of the company or the popular product. It does not include any written text or letters. It is only the symbol or icon that distinct the company from others. Examples of symbolic or iconic logos include Shell, BMW, Apple Company etc.

3. Graphical logo

This is a graphical representation of the activities or products of the company. It is a combination of both the text and iconic logo styles since it employs both text and letters together with a symbol. It is sometimes referred to as combination marks. Examples include Reebok, NASA, Pringles, and Samsung etc.

4. Illustrative logo

This is a pictorial representation of some aspect or activities of the company or product. It is very complex or detailed than the graphical and iconic logos. Aside the pictorial component, sometimes the name of the business enterprise can be combined with the pictorial element. Examples include New Orleans logo etc.

The Origin, Characteristics and Uses of Roman Lettering

The Origin, Characteristics and Uses of Roman Lettering

The Roman lettering style was developed from an old inscription found at the foot of a column built by Emperor Trojan in Rome in 113 B.C. A Frenchman called Nicholas Jenson first created the Roman lettering style in the fifteenth century precisely in 1470. It is also referred to as ‘Classical Roman lettering’ or ‘Quadrata’. The Roman alphabet took at least seven centuries to develop and did not contain the letters, J, U, and W.

Roman letters have ornamental or finishing strokes called serifs at both the top and bottom parts of the letters. These serifs give the vertical strokes of the letters stability and also make the letters graceful. The serif may be angular, thin, rounded or rectangular in their representations. This accounts for the varieties of serifs such as beaked serif, hairline serif, bracketed serif, sheared serif and slab serif.

There are other features that distinct this style of lettering from other forms of lettering. The letters have varying strokes of thick and thin. The vertical strokes are generally thick while the horizontal strokes are usually thin. Also, the letters have different proportions or sizes due to the transcending of thick and thin strokes. They are extremely beautiful and attractive because of the diversity in their stroke formation. Variety, which is a feature that breaks monotony or one format, is highly acclaimed with elegance by many people.

In addition, the letters stand erect or upright. This formal outlook of this lettering style makes it very appropriate to be used for official documents. This explains why mot documents for such purposes are usually restricted to be created in this lettering style.

Furthermore, the letters are carefully drawn or constructed. Due to the close attention paid to proportion and space, measuring devices are used by amateur designers who create these letters manually. Measuring tools on design software help in creating accurate representations of letters on personal computers.

This lettering is widely used for various purposes. It is used in writing the reading materials in books, newspapers, and magazines due to its excellent trait of readability. Also, they are used in designing packages for products and greeting cards for wishing people success in examinations, speedy recovery in ill health situations and many others. Again, they are used in writing the text on posters, banners, and other visual communication tools. Moreover, messages on citations are written in Roman lettering style. Names of participants in workshops, seminars, and other educational programmes are written in roman lettering styles on certificates.

It is one of the elegant lettering styles that ensure the designing of products in visual communication. Its rudiments must be carefully mastered and utilised by artists to achieve the maximum benefits.



Factors That Affect The Selection of Types in Typography


TypographyTypography is the process of arranging a type in a pleasing manner to be able to relay a message.

A typographer is a skilled artist who has specialized in the selection and arrangement of type images. Text on a page/ pages or in a book is described in Graphic Design as Typefaces or Fonts. A typeface or font is a particular style of one set of letters, numbers and punctuation marks.

There are hundreds of typefaces with different sizes, variations, and characteristics e.g. italics, bold, heavy, regular, narrow, rounded, display, compressed, light, condensed, extended etc. Some of the typefaces quickly draw the attention of onlookers because of their boldness while others express the feeling of movement and instability. The graphic artist has to understand the distinctive features of all the typefaces before he can effectively select the most suitable one for the execution of a particular product.

The selection of type for Graphic Communication is based on factors such as the type of information, the target audience, legibility, readability, and appropriateness.

1. The type of information

This refers to the kind of message that is to be relayed to the audience. This could be health issues, religious issues, political issues, etc. The graphic artist must know the information to be delivered so that he selects the appropriate font that can best carry the message to the general public. For example, billboards, banners etc. hinged along the major streets must carry heavy, display or extra bold fonts for legibility and readability.

2. The target audience

This is the people the message is to be sent. The graphic artist has to know the sex, age range, tastes or choices, cultural background and location so that he would select the typeface and type size that can effectively send the message. For example, if the graphic artist is selecting a typeface for a book for nursery pupil, he would not select the script, italic or serif type. This is because it may not be legible to the children who are now learning the letters of the alphabets. The best selection of typeface should be a sans serif typeface which is bold with a type size of about 18-20 points. This choice would be definitely different if the target audience were adults or teenagers.

3. Legibility

This refers to how easy the typeface to be selected can be seen and recognized at a distance. This should be very important to the graphic artist because the main objective of our work is to communicate effectively to the people. Therefore, before he selects a particular kind of typeface he should ask himself this important question: ‘Will my targeted audience be able to see and understand the message I am sending to them easily?’ If the selected font style answers it correctly in the affirmative then the choice is good.

4. Readability

This deals with how easy the target audience can combine the letters of the type into meaningful words and sentences as well as trying to decipher the content. Readability concerns itself with how fast the onlooker reads and digests the message portrayed by the graphic artist. It looks at the unity created by the combination of the individual letters into communicable symbols. The graphic artist must select a type that is easily readable.

5. Appropriateness

This is how well the selected typeface harmonizes with the message to be conveyed to the general public. The selected type must also be appropriate to the preferences of the targeted audience.



Make Your Own Vinyl Stickers Online

Vinyl Text for office

At GlassVinylGraphics we have added this month an easy to use ‘ Custom Text Designer ‘ for all our new customers. We know how busy you are and have no time to wait around for us to provide you with a manual quote. In light of this, we arranged for this new exciting self designing interactive dynamic feature for users to be able to quickly design their custom vinyl letter signs online, choose from a wide range of fonts,choose a font size to get the finished size sign width and choose from a range of vinyl colours and then get a price immediately and then check out and pay.

Vinyl Text Designer

Reverse Cut Letters

If you have a business or  shop window we suggest you click the Reverse Cut option when designing your Text sign, so that we will cut it in reverse and you can stick it on the inside of your glass for more sign security.

Vinyl Colour

We suggest WHITE vinyl for use on Glass as it pops off the glass visually and is easier to see from a distance.

Font Size

We suggest 40mm high text for car rear windows

We suggest 250mm high text for shop windows business name text

We suggest 50mm high for other text on shop windows

Other Surfaces

We aim to provide signs for customers with GLASS but our vinyl letter Signs can be stuck to other flat surfaces too.

Start Designing your Vinyl Sign

If you would like to start use our custom text designer please click on the link below to try it 0ut





Custom Text Designer

Vinyl Text Designer

We understand how BUSY everyone is today and expect instant results and Our Stats were showing that we were potentially missing out on orders, as we were are ranking in the top 5 for targeted key words across Australia.


Vinyl Text Designer


So with all this in mind, we  built into our website a LIVE custom text designer that will make it much easier for our clients to find out instantly how much their vinyl text sign will cost and buy it online that day and more importantly our clients now have the ability to work out what font height is required for their vinyl sign to fit their individual space. — something which, we had to manually and get back to them by email.

5 Months in Development

Its been 5 months in development, but well worth the wait as we wanted to get everything just right before launching it live. We hoped to have had it done by Christmas, but there were a few more elements I wanted to add in the admin area to make the whole process more productive – such as adding more fonts, adding more vinyl colours with exact Hex colours from the Vinyl manufacture and so on.


So today, after the we did some serious beta testing and ticked off all the boxes which were requested and built into the system, we can say, yes it is ready to go live!


Thank You

So thank you for all my previous clients for their extreme patience in using the Feedback Form Quotation System and for all those NEW potential clients, coming to the site for the first time, welcome and we hope you enjoy our NEW easier to use, quotation system LIVE custom text designer  and start ordering your own custom designed vinyl signs with GlassVinylGraphics.



Joanne Smith
Business owner





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The Starting Line For Learning How To Draw Graffiti Letters and Beyond


graffiti artOne of the coolest forms of expression is no doubt graffiti. Whether you look into the deep history of how it all began, or you just want to get good at using a can of paint, you will find that there’s a great glory to this that you can learn. It’s not without a few difficult matters, however, as you can’t just go to your local hardware store and then hit the proverbial ground running. There are things that you need to know about before you get going forward. With that in mind, consider a few things that you should know about learning how to craft this type of art, legally, and safely for that matter.

Working With Markers In Sketchbooks

Artists that get good with this format use markers and paper first. They get sketchbooks and start to tag them with ink, rather than going into the streets and callously wrecking property. It’s never recommended that you do anything illegal, so if you want to learn how to write graffiti, do so with safety in mind. Not only will you learn how to craft with ink, you’ll progress in how you want to express yourself as an artist. There’s nothing good that can come from hitting the streets to learn, that’s for sure.

Picking Up Guidebooks

We live in an age where information is at our fingertips at any given moment. That means that an education in learning how to draw, or just about anything is available to you. If you have a smartphone, a laptop, or if you just know how to read, then you have the goods to learn. You will need to look for guides and manuals on how to transform simple spray paint into the basis for something grand, but that’s not hard. Even your local library will have documents and different examples of how to draw, paint, and learn this craft. If you’re sincere, you can definitely learn from these texts.

The Canvas Approach

Canvas is a great way medium to start your work with. Once you are comfortable with some of the lettering, and inking that you do in sketchbooks, take to the art store and purchase canvas. This is a good way to ensure that you are able to learn without going into any illegal areas. As long as you use a bit of caution, you will find that canvas is a great base for your work with paint of any kind, and will pay off dividends down the line.

Of course, these are just a few notes on the starting line for learning this art form. You don’t have to go to school to learn, but you shouldn’t discount the immense creativity that can be gathered from artistic colleges. Whatever you decide, consider these starting points when working with this type of “street art”.

Creativity: Types, Qualities And Practical Steps On How To Be Creative


Creativity: Types, Qualities And Practical Steps On How To Be CreativeThe word ‘creativity’ comes from the Latin term crea “to create or make”. It is the act of using one’s own imagination to come out with new ideas, events or objects. It refers to the bringing of new things into existence. Creativity can also be defined as the process of producing something that is both original and worthwhile. It also involves improvement of already existing ideas or rearranging old things and ideas in new forms. These definitions help us to understand that creativity is contrary or opposite to copying.

Creative people try to develop and invent new things to solve problems wherever they find themselves. Creativity is experienced in every field of human endeavour such as art, engineering, sciences, medicine, police, law, trade, civil service, military, politics, teaching etc.

A creative person is someone who is able to use his own imagination or ideas to bring out new things which are very useful in our everyday life activities. There are two classes of creative persons, namely High/Genius creative person and the Less/ordinary creative person. This classification of creative persons is dependent on three important factors. These are:

• Fluency – The total number of interpretable, meaningful and relevant ideas generated in response to the stimulus.

• Originality – The statistical rarity of the responses among the test subjects.

• Elaboration – The amount of detail in the responses

High/Genius creative person

This creative person possesses more general intellectual habits, such as openness, levels of ideation, autonomy, expertise, exploratory skills and so on. He/she is able to create items with ease; it comes naturally as if without efforts. Creative people tend to be more open to new experiences, more self-confident, more ambitious,self-accepting, impulsive, driven, dominant, and hostile when compared to people with less creativity. The lives of genius creative persons in history were marked by extreme dedication and a cycle of hard-work and breakthroughs as a result of their determination.

Less/ordinary creative person

This group of creative persons can create but usually needs direction or guidance. They are limited in their capabilities and ideas. They usually exert themselves before they can create items. Most of them, usually need a push to spark their creative abilities.

There are various traits of a creative person. Some of these have been explained below.

(i) He is very curious and eager to learn or to find out things about his environment- A creative person always wants to find out why things happen as they do. He asks a lot of questions about things in his environment and he is ever ready to learn from people how some things were made.

(ii) He is ready to explore or try out new things and ideas- A creative person is always thinking of new things, how to address a particular issue in a different and more efficient manner. He tries to explore with various materials, tools, and techniques with the sole aim of addressing pertinent problems in his/her community.

(iii) He is hard working and does not give up easily in times of difficulty- A creative person is not lazy but takes what he does seriously. In the course of attending to his work, when he faces a difficulty a creative person does not give up on the work. On the contrary, he quickly generates a lot of ideas on how to deal with the difficulty. He keeps on trying till he overcomes the difficulty he encountered while attending to his work.

(iv) He is highly imaginative, practical oriented and experimental- He is always thinking of how to solve problems by producing or creating functional items. He is a scientist who tries varieties of methods and ideas so as to come out with a viable tool that is an absolute answer to a problem confronting communities and the nation.

(v) He accepts challenges and tasks and completes them- A creative person is very confident and has a high determination to succeed in any task assigned to him. He is not a coward, but a positive-minded person who is poised to be victorious. He doesn’t leave a stone unturned in his work.

(vi) He is always hopeful, and self-disciplined- He has high hopes that his work will yield good fruits. He does not give room to disappointments and ‘it cannot be done’ statement. He works to meet all deadlines and is faithful to his clients.

(vii) He is original- He does not steal ideas or copy existing ideas, products or items. On the other hand, he brings out new and first-hand ideas. A creative person can also improve the efficiency or workability of an existing item or product. However, he does not copy it but tries to address the deficiencies of the existing product all in the quest of producing a product that best solves the problem at stake.

(viii) He has a great interest and love for what he does- A creative person is very proud of what he does and has a keen delight in it. This is very evident in the passionate way he attends to what he does. Derogatory remarks about his work is like a drop of water to quench an uncontrolled fire, it does not affect his disposition and attitude towards his work or profession.

(ix) He is able to fit into a new situation- He finds his way easily, even in a new environment or situation. His presence is soon noticed and alarmed. He learns quickly and is able to adjust to his new environment be it a new duty, workplace, school etc.

(x) He is able to produce many ideas quickly- He is able to come out with a great variety of ideas which are fresh and well meaning. He is a good contributor of knowledge and skills. He is a thinker and a storehouse of ideas.

There are four vibrant stages or periods in the creative process. Each of them takes a great deal of time. The stages are Period of preparation, Period of incubation, Period of insight or inspiration and Period of verification, elaboration, perception, and evaluation.

1. Period of preparation

This is the first stage of the creative process where the creative person prepares himself or herself to handle the problem at stake. He gathers a lot of information on what he is about to do and explores the problem’s dimensions. He also explores various learning techniques to help him amass an in-depth knowledge about the work he is about to do.

2. Period of incubation

This is the stage of the creative process whereby he faces difficulty while attending to the work and then take a temporary leave from the work. He engages himself with another work with the hope of finding a remedy to the problem he has encountered.

Incubation helps in creative problem-solving in that it enables “forgetting” of misleading clues. The absence of incubation may lead the problem solver to become fixated on inappropriate strategies of solving the problem. Creative solutions to problems arise mysteriously from the unconscious mind while the conscious mind is occupied with other tasks. Therefore, he keeps working on other things till he finally finds a solution to the problem.

3. Period of insight or inspiration

This is the period during which the creative person finds a solution to the problem, he encountered while doing the work. He leaves everything and quickly attends to the work. This may take days, weeks, months or even years. It is also referred to as Intimation and illumination period.

4. Period of verification, elaboration, perception and evaluation

At this stage, the creative person works very hard with great joy with the goal of completing the work. He shows the work to friends, relatives and experts for their appreciation and criticisms.

Pattern Making As an Art Decorative Technique

Pattern Making As an Art Decorative Technique

PatternsA pattern is an organised arrangement of the elements of design such as dots, lines, shapes, textures, colours etc. on a surface using any appropriate technique for decoration. Pattern making is an experimental process since the resultant designs cannot be predicted by the artist.

Patterns can be used as designs for paper bags, clothes, greeting cards, fringes, garlands or tassels, and pop-up. There are several techniques in pattern making. Examples of pattern making techniques are Sponging, Veining, Blowing, Spraying, Spattering, Stippling, String Pulling, Wax-resist/crayon batik, Marbling, Scribbling, Rubbing-in, Rubbing-out etc.


This technique of pattern making involves the use of sponge as the principal tool for the creation of the patterns. The sponge can be laid or spread on the material (such as paper or cloth). The paint or ink is then dabbed with foam at the open areas of the sponge. The paint or ink can also be sprayed onto material after laying the sponge. The nett patterns or diamond shaped patterns of the sponge would appear on the material. Another technique is immersing the sponge in the paint or ink and rolling it on the material or paper to create the patterns.


This form of pattern making involves the application of paint in a liquid form by splashing the paint on the surface of the material to create interesting patterns. Sometimes, the tips of brushes are loaded with colour or ink and the thumb is used in splashing the colour onto the material such as paper. The splashing of the coloured pigment or paint can be done with a piece of foam or brush loaded with paint.


This is the application of paint or colour spilt through the tiny holes of a spray diffuser or atomiser. The spray can or container is filled with different coloured pigments or ink and is sprayed one at a time onto the material in several ways to create interesting designs. Surfaces of

Papers for writing calligraphy and other forms of wall hangings are decorated with spray patterns in varieties of colours.


This is the use of a drawing tool or implement in creating series of dots in an organised pattern on a material. Marking tools such as pencils, crayons, markers and pens can be used in creating interesting patterns of dots on paper and cards. This form of pattern making can be used to decorate the background of cards to be used for greeting cards, certificates and other forms of wall hangings. Pointed metallic tools such as gouges, chisels and texturing nails can be used in creating decorative textures in the form of dots on backgrounds of wood, clay and leather.

String Pulling

This is the technique of creating patterns on a material by the use of strings. These strings are immersed in a colour pigment or ink. The coloured string is then pulled for the colours to spill on the material to create decorative patterns on the paper.


This method of creating patterns involves the creation of random abstract lines with a marking tool, generally without ever lifting the drawing device off of the paper. The scribbles which are often created with different coloured marking tools result in eye-catching and attractive patterns on papers. These can be used in producing designs on paper bags, garlands, greeting cards etc.

Paper marbling

This is a method of aqueous (water) surface design used in producing patterns. The patterns are the result of colour usually, oil paint poured to float on either the surface of plain water or a viscous solution known as size, and then carefully transferred to an absorbent surface, such as paper or fabric. It is often employed as a writing surface for calligraphy, and especially book covers and endpapers in bookbinding and stationery. It can also be used as designs on papers to be used in producing paper bags.

Wax Resist/ Crayon Batik

This form of pattern making involves the use of wax in resisting parts of a paper or fabric and either applying colour or ink on the entire surface of the material. After the paint or ink is dried on the surface of the material, the wax is scratched off or removed to create interesting patterns. Another technique is applying the waxed design on the surface of the material and immersing it in a paint, dye or ink solution. The wax is freed off the material after the paint or dye is dried to create the patterns. Coloured crayons can be used for creating attractive patterns on materials before paint, dye or ink is applied.

Simultaneous Two Handed Drawing Techniques


Simultaneous Two Handed Drawing TechniquesI am discovering simultaneous, two handed drawing techniques through my own individual style of art creation. Every time I create new artwork, I find my hands making similar movements while drawing.

I have been heavily inspired by Polynesian, Samoan, and all forms of tribal art. I’m not the first person in the world to draw with both hands at once, but I have discovered and documented several drawing techniques to make the process easier to describe and teach to others.

I have not always drawn with two hands at once. Simultaneous two handed drawing is the next step in my individual creative process. If I never learned how to draw with one hand, I could have never taught myself to draw with two hands.

It feels much different to draw with two hands than with one. When you draw a line on the paper with one hand, it’s the equivalent of having one personality in a room. When you draw a line with two hands, it’s like have two personalities in a room. These two personalities can either talk with each other, or they can go off and “do their own thing”.

I created the term “Hand Mirroring” to describe when both hands are simultaneously drawing two similar lines or shapes. Imagine one hand is drawing a circle, and the other hand drawing a circle as well. This is like both hands are talking to each other. Whatever one hand does, the other does. If one hand draws a line, the other hand is also drawing a line. This is an easy concept for us to wrap our brains around. Mirroring = mimicking.

Where it starts to get convoluted, is when we try to allow the hands to have their own personality and each “do their own thing”. Imagine one hand drawing a circle, while the other is drawing a square. I refer to this type of drawing as “Hand Independence” and “Detachment”. With Independence, the hands are detached from each other’s movements so they can function Independently from one another. As opposed to Mirroring, where they are functioning dependently and opposite of each others movements.

Detachment begins in the mind and ends on the paper. It’s the mental and physical process of separating the hands from one another so they can function as two individual artists. Independence is the act of drawing with two hands at once. First we must detach from our hands, so they can detach from each other and act independently of one another.

In music, tempo means speed. In Simultaneous Two Handed Drawing, tempo means the speed at which the hands draw in relation to each other. The speed of drawing is an important part of detachment. Typically with Mirroring, the hands also tend to mimic each other’s speed. Learning to detach the hands from each other’s movements allows each hand to achieve maximum potential.